What Asset Managers Need to Know About SOC Reports


In recent years, with the introduction of new privacy laws (GDPR, California Consumer Privacy Act, etc.), the Asset Management sector has been dealing with increased regulatory scrutiny focused around security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy surrounding customers’ data.

Asset Managers are also under increased pressure to demonstrate that they are managing cybersecurity threats and have effective controls to detect, respond to, and mitigate security events.

In addition, there is increased activity related to the outsourcing of business and information technology functions, making the practice of third party risk management a major concern for many firms. Management of Asset Management firms has the ultimate responsibility to protect customer data, whether the data resides with the Asset Manager or a third party service provider. Consequently, management has a responsibility to properly research and monitor service organizations prior to onboarding, and to establish a vendor risk assessment process. The vendor risk assessment process helps management identify potential vendor risks and establish controls over the outsourced services.

Management may deploy various mechanisms in its vendor risk assessments, including audit of the third party service provider or review and evaluation of the SOC report(s) from the third party service provider. Generally, review and evaluation of the SOC report(s) is considered a more effective and efficient approach in the industry, which requires that management understands the proper use and scope of the reports received from the third party service providers.



Asset Managers have become accustomed to examining the controls of service providers to fulfill financial reporting responsibilities and often review and provide SOC 1 reports focusing on internal controls over financial reporting. However, many are less familiar with other types of SOC reports available to them.

The SOC 2® - SOC for Service Organizations: Trust Services Criteria is a report on Controls at a Service Organization Relevant to Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality or Privacy and is intended to meet the needs of a broad range of users. Asset Managers, for example require detailed information and reasonable assurance about the controls at a service organization, such as a software provider or hosting facility, that may be relevant to security, availability, and/or processing integrity of the systems used to process Asset Managers’ data and the confidentiality and/or privacy of the information processed.

In addition to a SOC 2, there is a SOC 3® - SOC for Service Organizations: Trust Services Criteria for General Use Report which is designed to meet the needs of users who need assurance about the controls at a service organization relevant to security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and/or privacy, but do not have the need for or the knowledge necessary to make effective use of a SOC 2 Report. The SOC 3 reports can be freely distributed but may not be as useful for evaluation of the service provider for Asset Managers.

To derive the most value from SOC 2 reports, it is important to assign responsibility to review and evaluate the reports to personnel within the Asset Manager’s organization with relevant background. Since this report is less focused on controls impacting financial reporting and is more focused on technology controls, individuals such as the Chief Technology Officer (CTO), Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), or a delegee within their departments who has information security background, should be reviewing and evaluating the SOC 2 report. Asset Managers with an internal audit department should also involve the internal audit team and work with aforementioned teams to help review and evaluate these reports.

Once the appropriate reviewers are established, they should understand the scope of the report by identifying and evaluating:

  • The scope and boundaries of the system being covered, which are specific aspects of infrastructure, software, people, procedures, and data necessary to provide services,

  • The Trust Services Criteria in scope (Security, Availability, Confidentiality, Processing Integrity, and/or Privacy),

  • The period covered by report (as of date (Type 1) or period of time (Type 2),

  • Location(s) being covered, including the data center locations, if the report is from a cloud, system or software provider,

  • The subservice organizations utilized by the service organization and Complementary Subservice Organization Controls (CSOCs) listed in the report that the Asset Managers may need to obtain additional reports for, and

  • Complementary User Entity Controls (CUECs) listed for the Asset Managers to evaluate whether those controls are in place and operating effectively in their organizations.

Understanding the scope and coverage of the report is a key step for the reviewers to be able to assess and address the risks that arise from the use of the service organizations. The scope of the report is the combination of the system being covered, the period coverage of the report (as of date (Type 1) or period of time (Type 2)), and the trust services categories that are included in the report. For Type 2 reports, the most common period coverage is 12 months, and Asset Managers should assess the operating effectiveness of controls if the coverage is less than 12 months.

The trust services categories themselves relate to areas of interest for the Asset Management firms. As described above, a SOC 2 could include one or more of the Trust Services Criteria, with common criteria being a baseline for all five categories and related criteria.

Because the criteria included within the report are determined by management of the service organization providing the report, it is important to ensure that the coverage is in line with the expectations of the Asset Management firm. To help better understand the categories and related criteria, included below are the definitions as defined by the AICPA:

  • Security - Information and systems are protected against unauthorized access, unauthorized disclosure of information, and damage to systems that could compromise the availability, integrity, confidentiality, and privacy of information or systems and affect the entity’s ability to meet its objectives.

  • Availability - Information and systems are available for operation and use to meet the entity’s objectives.

  • Processing Integrity - System processing is complete, valid, accurate, timely, and authorized to meet the entity’s objectives.

  • Confidentiality - Information designated as confidential is protected to meet the entity’s objectives.

  • Privacy - Personal information is collected, used, retained, disclosed, and disposed to meet the entity’s objectives.



The AICPA has recently developed a SOC for Cybersecurity report, which assists organizations as they relay relevant and useful information about the effectiveness of their cybersecurity risk management program to management, directors, investors, business partners, and other stakeholders.

Although the SOC 2 engagement can provide users with insight into an organization’s cybersecurity controls, there are many differences between the audience, subject matter, and scope of each service.

While a SOC 2 provides coverage of the system under AICPA’s Trust Services Criteria, SOC for Cybersecurity can be entity-wide and use other suitable criteria such as NIST CSF or ISO 27001.

Asset Managers can obtain these reports to understand service organization’s efforts on management of cybersecurity threats and whether effective processes and controls are in place to detect, respond to, mitigate and recover from breaches and other security events.



The chart below provides a comparison of SOC reports available to Asset Managers for review and consideration.


The Asset Management Group (AMG) of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA) and BDO USA, LLP, developed this guide to help Asset Managers understand and leverage System and Organization Controls (SOC) reports as part of their third party/vendor risk management process. This article was developed by leveraging and applying the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants’ (AICPA) 2017 Trust Services Criteria for Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, and Privacy (effective December 15, 2018), Guide: Reporting on an Entity’s Cybersecurity Risk Management Program and Controls (May 1, 2017), Guide: SOC 2 Reporting on an Examination of Controls at a Service Organization Relevant to Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, or Privacy (January 1, 2018), and AICPA’s Brochure What are you doing to prevent cyberattacks? (May 8, 2018).

This article was originally published with The Asset Management Group (AMG) of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA), read the original article here: https://www.sifma.org/resources/general/what-asset-managers-need-to-know-about-soc-reports/